- Plural of surgery
Surgery (from the cheirourgikē, via lang-la chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance, or sometimes for some other reason. An act of performing surgery may be called a surgical procedure, operation, or simply surgery. In this context, the verb operating means performing surgery. The adjective surgical means pertaining to surgery; e.g. surgical instruments or surgical nurse. The patient or subject that the surgery is being performed on can be a person or an animal. A surgeon is a person who performs operations on patients. Persons described as surgeons are commonly medical practitioners, but the term is also applied to podiatrists, dentists and veterinarians. Surgery can last from minutes to hours, but is typically not an ongoing or periodic type of treatment. The term surgery can also refer to the place where surgery is performed, or simply the office of a physician, dentist, or veterinarian.
Definitions of surgerySurgery is a medical technology consisting of a physical intervention on tissues. As a general rule, a procedure is considered surgical when it involves cutting of a patient's tissues or closure of a previously sustained wound. Other procedures that do not necessarily fall under this rubric, such as angioplasty or endoscopy, may be considered surgery if they involve "common" surgical procedure or settings, such as use of a sterile environment, anesthesia, antiseptic conditions, typical surgical instruments, and suturing or stapling. All forms of surgery are considered invasive procedures; so-called "noninvasive surgery" usually refers to an excision that does not penetrate the structure being excised (i.e. laser ablation of the cornea) or to a radiosurgical procedure (i.e. irradiation of a tumor).
Types of surgerySurgical procedures are commonly categorized by urgency, type of procedure, body system involved, degree of invasiveness, and special instrumentation.
Elective surgery is done to correct a non-life-threatening condition, and is carried out at the patient's request, subject to the surgeon's and the surgical facility's availability. Emergency surgery is surgery which must be done quickly to save life, limb, or functional capacity. Exploratory surgery is performed to aid or confirm a diagnosis. Therapeutic surgery treats a previously diagnosed condition.
Amputation involves cutting off a body part, usually a limb or digit. Replantation involves reattaching a severed body part. Reconstructive surgery, also commonly called plastic surgery, involves reconstruction of an injured, mutilated, or deformed part of the body. A subset of reconstructive surgery is cosmetic surgery, which is done to improve the appearance of an otherwise normal structure. Excision is the cutting out of an organ, tissue, or other body part from the patient. Transplant surgery is the replacement of an organ or body part by insertion of another from different human (or animal) into the patient. Removing an organ or body part from a live human or animal for use in transplant is also a type of surgery.
When surgery is performed on one organ system or structure, it may be classed by the organ, organ system or tissue involved. Examples include cardiac surgery (performed on the heart), gastrointestinal surgery (performed within the digestive tract and its accessory organs), and orthopedic surgery (performed on bones and/or muscles).
Minimally invasive surgery involves smaller outer incision(s) to insert miniaturized instruments within a body cavity or structure, as in laparoscopic surgery or angioplasty. By contrast, an open surgical procedure requires a large incision to access the area of interest. Laser surgery involves use of a laser for cutting tissue instead of a scalpel or similar surgical instruments. Microsurgery involves the use of an operating microscope for the surgeon to see small structures. Robotic surgery makes use of a surgical robot, such as the Da Vinci or the Zeus surgical systems, to control the instrumentation under the direction of the surgeon.
- Excision surgery names often start with a name for the organ to be excised (cut out) and end in -ectomy.
- Procedures involving cutting into an organ or tissue end in -otomy. A surgical procedure cutting through the abdominal wall to gain access to the abdominal cavity is a laparotomy.
- Minimally invasive procedures involving small incisions through which an endoscope is inserted end in -oscopy. For example, such surgery in the abdominal cavity is called laparoscopy.
- Procedures for formation of a permanent or semi-permanent opening called a stoma in the body end in -ostomy.
- Reconstruction or Cosmetic surgery of a body part starts with a name for the body part to be reconstructed and ends in -oplasty. Rhino is used as a prefix for "nose", so rhinoplasty is basically reconstructive or cosmetic surgery for the nose.
Description of surgical procedureAt a hospital, modern surgery is often done in an operating room using surgical instruments, an operating table for the patient, and other equipment. The environment and procedures used in surgery are governed by the principles of aseptic technique: the strict separation of "sterile" (free of microorganisms) things from "unsterile" or "contaminated" things. All surgical instruments must be sterilized, and an instrument must be replaced or re-sterilized if it becomes contaminated (i.e. handled in an unsterile manner, or allowed to touch an unsterile surface). OR staff must wear sterile attire (scrubs, a scrub cap, a sterile surgical gown, sterile latex or non-latex polymer gloves and a surgical mask), and they must scrub hands and arms with an approved disinfectant agent before each procedure.
Prior to surgery, the patient is given a medical examination, certain pre-operative tests, and an ASA score. If these results are satisfactory, the patient signs a consent form and is given a surgical clearance. If the procedure is expected to result in significant blood loss, an autologous blood donation may be made some weeks prior to surgery. If the surgery involves the digestive system, the patient may be instructed to perform a bowel prep by drinking a solution of polyethylene glycol the night before the procedure. Patients are also instructed to abstain from food or drink (an NPO order after midnight on the night before the procedure, to minimize the effect of stomach contents on pre-operative medications and reduce the risk of aspiration if the patient vomits during or after the procedure.
In the pre-operative holding area, the patient changes out of his or her street clothes and is asked to confirm the details of his or her surgery. A set of vital signs are recorded, a peripheral IV line is placed, and pre-operative medications (antibiotics, sedatives, etc) are given. When the patient enters the operating room, the skin surface to be operated on is cleaned and prepared by applying an antiseptic such as chlorhexidine gluconate or povidone-iodine to reduce the possibility of infection. If hair is present at the surgical site, it is clipped off prior to prep application. Sterile drapes are used to cover all of the patient's body except for the surgical site and the patient's head; the drapes are clipped to a pair of poles near the head of the bed to form an "ether screen", which separates the anesthetist/anesthesiologist's working area (unsterile) from the surgical site (sterile).
Anesthesia is administered to prevent pain from incision, tissue manipulation and suturing. Based on the procedure, anesthesia may be provided locally or as general anesthesia. Spinal anesthesia may be used when the surgical site is too large or deep for a local block, but general anesthesia may not be desirable. With local and spinal anesthesia, the surgical site is anesthetized, but the patient can remain conscious or minimally sedated. In contrast, general anesthesia renders the patient unconscious and paralyzed during surgery. The patient is intubated and is placed on a mechanical ventilator, and anesthesia is produced by a combination of injected and inhaled agents.
An incision is made to access the surgical site. Blood vessels may be clamped to prevent bleeding, and retractors may be used to expose the site or keep the incision open. The approach to the surgical site may involve several layers of incision and dissection, as in abdominal surgery, where the incision must traverse skin, subcutaneous tissue, three layers of muscle and then peritoneum. In certain cases, bone may be cut to further access the interior of the body; for example, cutting the skull for brain surgery or cutting the sternum for thoracic (chest) surgery to open up the rib cage.
Work to correct the problem in body then proceeds. This work may involve:
- excision - cutting out an organ, tumor, or other tissue.
- resection - partial removal of an organ or other bodily structure.
- reconnection of organs, tissues, etc., particularly if severed. Resection of organs such as intestines involves reconnection. Internal suturing or stapling may be used. Surgical connection between blood vessels or other tubular or hollow structures such as loops of intestine is called anastomosis.
- ligation - tying off blood vessels, ducts, or "tubes".
- grafts - may be severed pieces of tissue cut from the same (or different) body or flaps of tissue still partly connected to the body but resewn for rearranging or restructuring of the area of the body in question. Although grafting is often used in cosmetic surgery, it is also used in other surgery. Grafts may be taken from one area of the patient's body and inserted to another area of the body. An example is bypass surgery, where clogged blood vessels are bypassed with a graft from another part of the body. Alternatively, grafts may be from other persons, cadavers, or animals.
- insertion of prosthetic parts when needed. Pins or screws to set and hold bones may be used. Sections of bone may be replaced with prosthetic rods or other parts. Sometime a plate is inserted to replace a damaged area of skull. Artificial hip replacement has become more common. Heart pacemakers or valves may be inserted. Many other types of prostheses are used.
- creation of a stoma, a permanent or semi-permanent opening in the body
- in transplant surgery, the donor organ (taken out of the donor's body) is inserted into the recipient's body and reconnected to the recipient in all necessary ways (blood vessels, ducts, etc.).
- arthrodesis - surgical connection of adjacent bones so the bones can grow together into one. Spinal fusion is an example of adjacent vertebrae connected allowing them to grow together into one piece.
- modifying the digestive tract in bariatric surgery for weight loss.
- repair of a fistula, hernia, or prolapse
- other procedures, including:
- clearing clogged ducts, blood or other vessels
- removal of calculi (stones)
- draining of accumulated fluids
- debridement- removal of dead, damaged, or diseased tissue
Blood or blood expanders may be administered to compensate for blood lost during surgery. Once the procedure is complete, sutures or staples are used to close the incision. Once the incision is closed, the anesthetic agents are stopped and/or reversed, and the patient is taken off ventilation and extubated (if general anesthesia was administered).
After completion of surgery, the patient is transferred to the post anesthesia care unit and closely monitored. When the patient is judged to have recovered from the anesthesia, he/she is either transferred to a surgical ward elsewhere in the hospital or discharged home. During the post-operative period, the patient's general function is assessed, the outcome of the procedure is assessed, and the surgical site is checked for signs of infection. If removable skin closures are used, they are removed after 7 to 10 days post-operatively, or after healing of the incision is well under way.
Post-operative therapy may include adjuvant treatment such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or administration of medication such as anti-rejection medication for transplants. Other follow-up studies or rehabilitation may be prescribed during and after the recovery period.
At least two prehistoric cultures had developed forms of surgery. The oldest for which we have evidence is trepannation, in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the skull, thus exposing the dura mater in order to treat health problems related to intracranial pressure and other diseases. Evidence has been found in prehistoric human remains from Neolithic times, in cave paintings, and the procedure continued in use well into recorded history. Surprisingly, many prehistoric and premodern patients had signs of their skull structure healing; suggesting that many survived the operation. In modern-day Pakistan, remains from the early Harappan periods of the Indus Valley Civilization (c. 3300 BC) show evidence of teeth having been drilled dating back 9,000 years. A final candidate for prehistoric surgical techniques is ancient Egypt, where a mandible dated to approximately 2650 BC shows two perforations just below the root of the first molar, indicating the draining of an abscessed tooth. Recent excavations of the construction workers of the Egyptian pyramids also led to possible evidence of brain surgery.
The oldest known surgical texts date back to Indian physician Sushruta, the "Father of Surgery", who taught and practiced surgery on the banks of the Ganges around 600 BC. Much of what is known about Sushruta is contained in a series of volumes he authored, which are collectively known as the Susrutha Samhita. It is the oldest known surgical text and it describes in great detail the examination, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of numerous ailments, as well as procedures on performing various forms of plastic surgery, such as cosmetic surgery and rhinoplasty. His technique for the latter, used to reconstruct noses that were amputated as a punishment for crimes, is practiced almost unchanged in technique to this day.
Other ancient cultures to have surgical knowledge include ancient Greece - the Hippocratic Oath was an innovation of the Greek physician Hippocrates - and ancient China. However ancient Greek culture traditionally considered the practice of opening the body to be repulsive and thus left known surgical practices such as lithotomy to such persons as practice [it]. In China, Hua Tuo was a famous Chinese physician during the Eastern Han and Three Kingdoms era. He was the first person to perform surgery with the aid of anesthesia, albeit a rudimentary and unsophisticated form.
In the Middle Ages, surgery was developed to a high degree in the Islamic world, with renowned practitioners such as Abulcasis (Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi), an Andalusian-Arab physician and scientist who practised in the Zahra suburb of Córdoba. A great medieval surgeon, whose comprehensive medical texts shaped European surgical procedures up until the Renaissance. He is also often regarded as a Father Of Surgery.
In Europe, the demand grew for surgeons to formally study for many years before practicing; universities such as Montpellier, Padua and Bologna Universities were particularly renowned. By the fifteenth century at the latest, surgery had split away from physics as its own subject, of a lesser status than pure medicine, and initially took the form of a craft tradition until Rogerius Salernitanus composed his Chirurgia, laying the foundation for modern Western surgical manuals up to the modern time. Late in the nineteenth century, Bachelor of Surgery degrees (usually Ch.B.) began to be awarded with the (M.B.), and the mastership became a higher degree, usually abbreviated Ch.M. or M.S. in London, where the first degree was M.B.,B.S..
Basic surgical principles for asepsis ect are known as Halsteads principles
Modern surgery developed rapidly with the scientific era. Ambroise Paré (sometimes spelled "Ambrose") pioneered the treatment of gunshot wounds, and the first modern surgeons were battlefield doctors in the Napoleonic Wars. Naval surgeons were often barber surgeons, who combined surgery with their main jobs as barbers. Three main developments permitted the transition to modern surgical approaches - control of bleeding, control of infection and control of pain (anaesthesia).; Infection: The concept of infection was unknown until relatively modern times. The first progress in combating infection was made in 1847 by the Hungarian doctor Ignaz Semmelweis who noticed that medical students fresh from the dissecting room were causing excess maternal death compared to midwives. Semmelweis, despite ridicule and opposition, introduced compulsory handwashing for everyone entering the maternal wards and was rewarded with a plunge in maternal and fetal deaths, however the Royal Society in the UK still dismissed his advice. Significant progress came following the work of Pasteur, when the British surgeon Joseph Lister began experimenting with using phenol during surgery to prevent infections. Lister was able to quickly reduce infection rates, a reduction that was further helped by his subsequent introduction of techniques to sterilize equipment, have rigorous hand washing and a later implementation of rubber gloves. Lister published his work as a series of articles in The Lancet (March 1867) under the title Antiseptic Principle of the Practice of Surgery. The work was groundbreaking and laid the foundations for a rapid advance in infection control that saw modern aseptic operating theatres widely used within 50 years (Lister himself went on to make further strides in antisepsis and asepsis throughout his lifetime).
Conditions treated by surgery
Surgery is used both as a treatment, and as an aspect of treatment, for many conditions, including:
- Physical trauma, e.g. wounds
- Anatomical Abnormalities
- Disorders of function
- Ischaemia and infarction
- Metabolic disorders
- Other abnormalities of tissue growth, e.g. cysts, hyperplasia or Organ hypertrophy, as well as some cancers, if caught early enough
- Deformity and heavy scarring.
- Brain damage and nerve damage
Five of the most common surgical procedures in the United States are obstetric: episiotomy, repair of obstetric laceration, cesarean section, and artificial rupture of the amniotic membrane.
The most common non-obstetric surgical procedures include amputation, appendectomy, cataract surgery, circumcision, dental extraction and herniorraphy.
According to 1996 data from the US National Center for Health Statistics, 40.3 million inpatient surgical procedures were performed in the United States in 1996, followed closely by 31.5 million outpatient operations.
- ASA score or pre-operative physical fittness
- Cardiac surgery
- List of surgical procedures
- Minimally invasive procedure
- Perioperative mortality
- Robotic surgery
- Surgeon for surgeons' titles and list of famous practitioners
- Trauma surgery
- The Thomson/Miles Manual of Surgery
- Plastic surgery and Greek mythology
- Surgery Videos
- Surgeons Net Educational Site
- Comparison of shoulder scars for open verses arthroscopic surgeries
- The portrayal of surgery by various artists
- A Manual of Military Surgery, by Samuel D. Gross, MD (1861). The manual used by doctors in the Union Army during the American Civil War.
- United States Surgery Patents
- Surgery Instruments
- American Surgical Association
- Unmanned robot surgeon
- AO Surgery Reference
- The Imperial College London Surgical Society
- Pediatric Surgery
surgeries in Arabic: جراحة
surgeries in Asturian: Ciruxía
surgeries in Bengali: শল্যচিকিৎসা
surgeries in Bosnian: Hirurgija
surgeries in Catalan: Cirurgia
surgeries in Czech: Chirurgie
surgeries in Danish: Kirurgi
surgeries in German: Chirurgie
surgeries in Modern Greek (1453-): Χειρουργική
surgeries in Spanish: Cirugía
surgeries in Esperanto: Kirurgio
surgeries in Basque: Kirurgia
surgeries in French: Chirurgie
surgeries in Irish: Máinliacht
surgeries in Korean: 외과
surgeries in Croatian: Kirurgija
surgeries in Ido: Kirurgio
surgeries in Indonesian: Bedah
surgeries in Italian: Chirurgia
surgeries in Hebrew: כירורגיה
surgeries in Latvian: Ķirurģija
surgeries in Lithuanian: Chirurgija
surgeries in Hungarian: Sebészet
surgeries in Macedonian: Хирургија
surgeries in Dutch: Chirurgie
surgeries in Nepali: शल्यचिकित्सा
surgeries in Newari: शल्यचिकित्सा
surgeries in Japanese: 外科学
surgeries in Norwegian: Kirurgi
surgeries in Low German: Chirurgie
surgeries in Polish: Chirurgia
surgeries in Portuguese: Cirurgia
surgeries in Romanian: Chirurgie
surgeries in Quechua: Runa kuchuy
surgeries in Russian: Хирургия
surgeries in Simple English: Surgery
surgeries in Slovak: Chirurgia
surgeries in Slovenian: Kirurgija
surgeries in Serbian: Хирургија
surgeries in Serbo-Croatian: Kirurgija
surgeries in Finnish: Kirurgia
surgeries in Swedish: Kirurgi
surgeries in Vietnamese: Ngoại khoa
surgeries in Turkish: Cerrahi
surgeries in Ukrainian: Хірургія
surgeries in Urdu: جراحت
surgeries in Chinese: 外科学